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了解一下卫星通信安全风险类型

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发表于 2024-3-1 20:58:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

了解一下卫星通信安全风险类型

原创 Steven1982 太空安全 2022-06-28 08:30 新加坡

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ingFang SC,serif;font-size:13.0pt;"> 卫星通信风险分类ingFang SC,serif;font-size:13.0pt;">

ingFang SC,serif;font-size:13.0pt;">1、典型卫星平台架构图ingFang SC,serif;font-size:13.0pt;">

ingFang SC,serif;font-size:13.0pt;">2、卫星安全风险几种类型ingFang SC,serif;font-size:13.0pt;">

ingFang SC,serif;font-size:11.0pt;">2.1  hysical Security RisksingFang SC,serif;font-size:12.0pt;">

ingFang SC,serif;font-size:11.0pt;">2.2  Digital Security RisksingFang SC,serif;font-size:12.0pt;">

2.3 Organizational Security Risks

2.4 Regulatory Factors Security Risks

3、典型卫星风险

二、其他参考材料

一 卫星通信风险分类

1、典型卫星平台架构图

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2、卫星安全风险几种类型

通过麻省理工大学某个论文我们进卫星安全威胁类型进行总结思图

2.1  hysical Security Risks

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2.2  Digital Security Risks

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2.3 Organizational Security Risks

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2.4 Regulatory Factors Security Risks

 

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3、典型卫星风险

3.1 卫星轨道位置跟踪漏洞通过一些开放的数据和软件可以获得卫星的实时位置。

3.2 窃取地空传输数据漏洞:由于很多卫星数据通信是不加密的,通过对卫星通信频谱进行分析,获取通信频段,然后对接收设备调频,能够接收到卫星的数据。

3.3 利用协议漏洞:CCSDS协议漏洞、GRE数据包注入漏洞、X.25协议漏洞(请戳http://www.0xdeadbeef.info)、及卫星网络中TCP协议漏洞(可以搞类似ARP欺骗的东西)

3.4 堵塞干扰信号漏洞:频段阻塞攻击,通过向卫星运作频段发送大量干扰信号阻止地空通信

3.5 大功率代替原信号漏洞:干扰正常卫星视频信号,替换成其他视频信号内容。

3.6 命令信号重放漏洞:通过抓取协议进行分析,分析协议执行命令情况,如果协议设计的不好可能有,被人伪造频谱协议进行重放,实现对卫星的命令执行。那人又把这个信号向卫星重放了一遍,那么卫星就又执行了一次原命令。

3.7 地面测控漏洞:通过地面设备获取地面测控命令字段,回放测控命令协议,实现对卫星进行控制。著名案例是某观测卫星被恶意操纵转向太阳,图像观测元器件直接报废。

 

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二、其他参考材料

1.http://files.cnblogs.com/miyeah/ ... tellite-hacking.pdf

2.http://files.cnblogs.com/miyeah/ ... Perplexed.pdf 

3.Satellite Hacking IndianZ (Martin Rutishauser) 对卫星黑客进行了很好的介绍。我把这个PPT粘贴到文章中,希望对研究卫星安全的大拿们能够有所帮助。

 

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Page3  Disclaimer 免责声明

# FX talked about satellite hacking @berlinsides 6 months ago ( unpublished

#A wish , more people of the community would join this topic

#So I started investigation into satellite technology , digital video broadcasting and ham amateur radio

#Nights of research , gathered more than 3.6 GB public data

#Just started , not yet fully there where I want ( ed ) to be

#But for now , please fasten seatbelts for a short trip to space


Page4 Agenda 
议程

Introduction    介绍

Equipment       设备

Satellite Hackerst    卫星黑客

Future Outlook        未来展望

Annexr                      附录R

 

Page5 Definitions 定义

Latin satelles = Companion or bodyguard

Bodyguard = Etruskan origin ( 500 BC )

Bird ( in the sky ) = Satellite ( in orbit )

Orbit = Path around Earth

Payload = Module ( Imagery,Radio,DVB-S(2),...)

Downlink = Satellite to Earth

Uplink = Earth to Satellite

Beam = Uplink / Downlink Channel

Footprint = Coverage of Satellite Beam

Launch = Bring satellite with transport vehicle into orbit

VSAT = Very Small Aperture Terminal ( dish2dish)

Doppler effect/shift = Radio RX / TX moving

Beacon = Modulated Oscillator ( telemetry )

Transponder = Transmitter and responder ( relay )

Transceiver = Transmitter and receiver

Apogee = Biggest Distance to Earth

Perigee = Smallest Distance to Earth

TT&C = Telemetry , Tracking & Command

 

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Page 10 Launches

About 4 000 launches overall  ( ? )

About 100 launches in 2012

Multiple payloads possible

Nowadays approximately 3000 satellites living ( ? )

Operating lifespan between 5 to 20 years

About 20 countries are " in space"

About 22 official launch sites worldwide

 

Page 11 Countries in space

# USA , Russia , Japan , China , France , India , IsraelAustralia , UK , Canada , Germany , Italy , Austria , IndonesiaBrazil , Sweden , Luxembourg , Argentina , Saudi ArabiaSouth Korea

# ESA ( European Space Agency ) : Austria , Belgium , Czech Republic , Denmark , Finland , France , Germany , Greece Ireland , Italy , Luxembourg , Netherlands , Norway , Portugal ,Romania , Spain , Sweden , UK , Switzerland

# Private Organizations ( Space Adventures , Virgin Galatic Rocketship Tours , ...)

# Work in progress : North Korea , Iran,...

 

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Page 13 14 Orbits 

# LEO : Low Earth Orbit ( circular orbit : 6.9 to 7.8 km/s ) , 200 to 1200 km( elliptic orbit : 6.5 to 8.2 km/s )

GTO : Geostationary Transfer Orbit , 200-800 km perigee / 36000 km apogee

MEO : Medium Earth Orbit ,1.000 to 36.000 km

GSO / GSO : Geo Synchronous Orbit / Inclined GSO , 23h56min04 saround earth ( analemma - > 8 )

GEO : Geo Stationary Orbit ( 3.1 km/s ) , 35.786 km

HEO : Highly Elliptical Orbit , Molniya ( 1.5 to 10.0 km/s ) , 200 to 15.000km / 50.000 to 400.000 km

Graveyard : around 335.786 km

SSO : Sun Synchronous Orbit

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Page21-22 Dependencies 依赖关系

 

#Finance:Backup transaction links

#Communication:Backup mobile / internet links , Amateur Radio

#Branch offices: Internet access / VPN / VSAT

#Transport: Navigation , Containers , Search & RescueH 

#Military: Espionage , Reconnaissance

#News: Digital video broadcast

#Weather: Forecast

#Video telephony: IP-TV

#Geology: Maps , Resource discovery

#Astronomy: Observation , Reconnaissance

#Navigation : GPS , Galileo , GLONASS , CompassIRNSS

#Satellite Phones : Iridium Inmarsat Isatphone ProBGAN , Fleet Broadband , Globalstar , Thuraya , Terrestar

# Satellite Internet : Businesscom Networks Ltd CETel Gmbh , dsl2u , Filiago , HET AN @ Home , STA-Network, Sat Internet Services Gmbh , Satlynx , satspeed ,SkyGate , Stardsl , Thuraya , getinternet s a.r. I

#TV : Astra , Hotbird , Sky , UPC

 

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Page 27 Tracking 

#Tools for Satellite Tracking

#Gpredict ( win / linux )#Orbitron , Sattrack ( win )#Predict ( linux )

 

#Online Databases

#http://www.n2yo.com/database/#ht ... nwgs/UCS_Satellite_ Database_1-1-12.xls

 

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Page31 Agenda 议程

Introduction    介绍

Equipment       设备

Satellite Hackerst    卫星黑客

Future Outlook        未来展望

Annexr                      附录R

 

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Page36 Agenda 
议程

Introduction    介绍

Equipment       设备

Satellite Hackerst    卫星黑客

Future Outlook        未来展望

Annexr                      附录R

 

 

Page37 Past publications

#2012 B.Driessen and R.Hund: Don't Trust Satellite Phones 

#2011 M.Moeckel:Space Debris

#2011 J.Geovedi , R.Iryandi , R.Chiesa:Hacking a Bird in the Sky 2.0

#2009 J.Geovedi , R.lryand:Hacking Satellite: A New Universe to Discovers 

#2009 L Nve Egea , Ch Martorell:Playing in a Satellite Environment 1.2

#2009 A . Laurie:Satellite Hacking for Fun & Profit!

#2008 J.GeovedI, R.Iryandi, A.Zboralski: Hacking a Bird in the Sky : Exploiting SatelliteTrust Relationships 

#2006 J.Geovedi, R.lryandi : Hacking a Bird n the Sky : Hijacking VSAT Connections 

#2006 A . Adelbach : Broadcasting by Misuse of Satellite ISPs 

#2004 Warezzman: DVB Satellite Hacking

#1998 D.Veneman : Future & Existing Satellite Systemsf

#1996 D.Veneman : Low Earth Orbit Satellites

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Page39 Digital Video Broadcasting

#DVB-T

      DVB Terrestrial,ETSI EN 300744 1997

#DVB-S / 2

      DVB Satellite,ETSI EN 300421 1997 / S2 EN 302307 2005

#DVB-C / 2 = Cable

       DVB Cable,ETSI EN 300429 1994 / C2 EN 302755 1998

#DVB-H = Handheld

#DVB-SH = Handheld over Satellite

 

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Page 45 ress Citations

#Satellites could come under cyber siege ...

#Aging fleet has become a prime target ...

#We're going to fight from space and we're going to fight into space...

#Malicious cyber activities directed against U.S satellites...

#Satellite-based networks : at risk from hackers...

#Attacks against satellite systems ...

 

Page46-47 Top 10 threats

#Tracking

Tracking : over web data and software

#Listening

Listening : the right equipment , frequencies and location

#Interacting

Interacting : protocols and authentication used , radio transmissions need official license !

#Using

Take over a bird ( or a TT & C ) , use payloads , make pictures ,transmit something ( DVB or radio )

#Scanning / attacking

Anonymous PoC 2010 by Leonardo Nve Egea

Scanning , DoS and spoofing possible

#Breaking

Old technologies used : up to 20 (!) years lifespan

X.25used(x25bru.c and http://www.0xdeadbeef.info/)

GRE used (IRPAS + gre . c from Phenoelit;)

#Jamming

Frequencies are known , you are in range and have power

#Mispositioning

Raging transponder spoofing , direct commanding , command replay , insertion after confirmation but prior to executiont 

#Grillin

Activating all solar panels when exposed to sun (!)

Overcharging energy system ( charge controller?)

#Collisioning ?

 

 

Page48 49 Collisioning

#1978 Kessler syndrome(aka Kessler effect, collisional cascading or ablation cascade)

#8 known high speed collisions

#1985 US antisatellite missile test(p78-1)

#1996 Cerise satellite collided with space debris

#2006 Satellite collision(Dart/Mublcom)

#2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test( Fengyun)

#2009 Satellite collision(Iridium 33/kosmos-2251)

#3 times space debris collided with Mir station

 

Page50 Known hacking cases

2012 Iridium / Inmarsat phones , german researchers

2010 Anonymous scan / attack over satellites , L.N.Egea

2009 Predator drones ( DVB Skygrabber ) Afghanistan

2009 FLTSAT-8Brasilian hackerssocker radio chats

2008 Landsat-7 / Terra AM-1 over Norway TT & C (.CN ?

2007 Intelsat broadcast, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

2002 Sinosat-1 broadcast , Falun Gong banner China TV

1990 Pay-tv Decoding ( Premiere Europe )

1990 Freeloaders , pr0n / free phone calls over satellites

1980 Satellite radio listening , signals decoding

 

Page51 Agenda 议程

Introduction    介绍

Equipment       设备

Satellite Hackerst    卫星黑客

Future Outlook        未来展望

Annexr                      附录R

 

 

Page 52 Satellite Future

#NASA did stop shuttle usage ( because of costs and accidents ) in 2011

#ISS now gets logistics over Spacex Dragon space capsule ( US private organization ) or Sojuz ( TMA-Mspacecrafts ( Russia )

#NASA plans to be back in space with Space Launch System ( SLS ) by 2017 and permanent moon base by 2024

#China plans own space station by 2020

 

Page 53 Personal Outlook

#I'm not alone in the community covering this topic

#Highly complex field , merged technologies

#Not much proof-of-concepts yet completed

#Preparing for HAM radio license ( to be able to send)

#Just started investigating , expect more to come

#If somebody wants to join the research , feel free 

#Especially guys with DVB experience are welcome 

 

Page 54 Questions Comments Discussion

55-58三页是参考文档已经形成文字

References

#http://www.satellitenwelt.de

#http://www.heavens-above.com

#http://blog.makezine.com/2009/07 ... lites-on-ham-radio/

#http://www.levinecentral.com/ham/grid_square.php

#http/www.uska.ch/

#http://www.bakom.admin.ch/themen/frequenzen/01576/01578/index. html?lang=de

#http://www.bakom.admin.ch/themen/frequenzen/00652/00653/index. html?lang=de

#httр://www.n2y0.com/database/ 

#httр://www.uсsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/UCS_Satellite_Database_1-1-12. xls 

#httр://www.hamqsl.com/

#httр://gpredict.oz9аес.net/

#httр://sourceforge.net/projects/ggrx/

#httрs://github.com/csete/ggrx/

#httр://dvbsnooр.sourceforge.net/

#httр://www.amsat.org/

#httр://atpdec.sourceforge.net/

#httр://www.oz9aec.net/index.php/gnu-radio/gnu-radio-blog/451howto-receive-and-decode-noaa-apt-images-with-the-funcube-dongle-and-gqrx

#httр:///www.oz9aec.net/index.php/gnu-radio/gnu-radio-blog/477-noaa-apt-reception-with-ggrx-and-rtlsdr

#httр://www.thiecom.de/

#httр://sat.mur.at/

#httр://shackspace.de/wiki/doku.php?id=project:hgg

#httр://brainwagon.org/the-arduino-n-gameduino-satellite-tracker/

 

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